A Level Biology Revision Notes

Comprehensive A Level Biology revision notes providing information and assistance for all UK examination boards (AQA, OCR, Edexcel) as well as international curriculum (CIE).

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Transport In Animals

Summary Transport of materials i.e nutrients and gaseous exchange is basic necessity of living organisms Unicellular organisms transport materials via active and passive transport Multicellular organisms require a complete system of transportation called circulatory system Passive transport is carried out either by diffusion or by osmosis process Passive transport does not require energy Active transport …

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Difference between monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide

Summary The three types of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides Monosaccharides are the simplest sugars e.g. glucose. fructose and galactose Disaccharides are formed by condensation where there is linking of two monosaccharides together Disaccharides can be broken down to monosaccharides via hydrolysis Polysaccharides, also known as polymers contain three or more monosaccharides Polysaccharides; starch, …

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The Mammalian Heart

Summary The heart is a muscular organ in majority animals that pumps bloods via the blood vessels to form the circulatory system Blood provides the human body with important nutrients and oxygen whilst also assisting in the removal of metabolic waste The heart is situated off centre to the left side of the rib cage …

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The Cardiac Cycle

Summary The sequence of one heart beat ending to the beginning of another is known as the cardiac cycle The heart consists of two pumps that work together where both sides of the heart relax and contract with one another Systole is the repetition in contractions of the heart chambers Diastole is the relaxation of …

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Summary Atherosclerosis is a progressive disorder and primarily an inflammatory disease It is caused by atheroma’s and marked by the narrowing of arteries by the hardening done by plaques Atheroma is the flaky material made up of lipids (cholesterol and lipid), macrophages, calcified lesions and fibrous tissue that are present nearest the lumen of an …

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The Light Reactions Of Photosynthesis

Summary box Light energy behaves both as electromagnetic waves and discrete particles, measured in photons. Pigments absorb visible light – important pigments in photosynthesis ar chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis make ATP and NADPH Photosystems I and II are complexes that work together to absorb light and produce ATP …

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Overview Of Photosynthesis

Summary box Green plants and other organisms convert light energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis Photosynthesis is essential for almost all light on earth – either directly or indirectly Chloroplasts in the leaves of plant cells are the organelles in which photosynthesis takes place Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which absorbs the light energy Thylakoids are disc-shaped …

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Types Of Mutations

Summary box Mutations occur through various mechanisms that can impact genes, chromosomes, and outcomes differently. Mutations can occur on a single nucleotide scale (at the level of point mutations), or on a much larger scale (where segments of whole chromosomes are affected. Substitution of nucleotides can be synonymous (silent) or non-synonymous (change amino acid). The …

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Summary box Mutations describe changes to a DNA sequence and are associated with both disease and evolution Mutations can occur spontaneously in all cell types, but will only become part of the future generation’s genome sequence when they occur in the parental germ line Mutations can occur due to exposure to chemicals, environmental factors, or …

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