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OCR AS Biology Module 2: Foundations in biology

All living organisms have similarities in cellular structure, biochemistry and function. An understanding of these similarities is fundamental to the study of the subject.

This module gives learners the opportunity to use microscopy to study the cell structure of a variety of organisms. Biologically important molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, water and nucleic acids are studied with respect to their structure and function. The structure and mode of action of enzymes in catalysing biochemical reactions is studied.

Membranes form barriers within, and at the surface of, cells. This module also considers the way in which the structure of membranes relates to the different methods by which molecules enter and leave cells and organelles. The division and subsequent specialisation of cells is studied, together with the potential for the therapeutic use of stem cells.

Learners are expected to apply knowledge, understanding and other skills developed in this module to new situations and/or to solve related problems.

2.1Foundations in biology
2.1.1Cell structure
2.1.2Biological molecules
2.1.3Nucleotides and nucleic acids
2.1.5Biological membranes
2.1.6Cell division, cell diversity and cellular organisation